Unlike the FLAVR SAVR™ fresh tomatoes, the Zeneca tomato paste was a modest commercial success, capturing over half of the market where it was sold, until it was overwhelmed in the anti‐GM sentiment that swept the UK early in 1999. These crops have been grown since 1995 and their use is widespread in Canada (Biotechnology Industry Organization Server. Although this is relatively straightforward in principle, it has been much more difficult to achieve in practice. Male sterility is desirable for the production of hybrid crops, which normally have considerably higher yields compared with their non‐hybrid counterparts. During the past few years, however, the use of more sophisticated genomic tools has shown us that, although dozens of genes may underlie such complex traits, sometimes much of the variation in their phenotypic expression can be caused by a small number of key regulatory genes. An additional more general benefit would be to prevent the spread into the environment of transgenic traits such as herbicide tolerance that may be present in such seeds. Annual and perennial crops produce a yearly output of >87 million tonnes in traded vegetable oils that is worth about $40–45 billion. Although this technology has been available for nearly a decade, it is still undergoing field trials in various countries although there are good prospects that it will be commercialised soon (EPA Server, http://www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/EPA-IMPACT/2002/February/Day-25/i4385.htm; Business Line Server, http://www.blonnet.com/2002/01/12/stories/2002011200151000.htm). In one of the applications, a gene would be inserted into a crop such that, as the seeds germinated or the seeds from the second generation developed, a toxic protein would be produced, and the seedlings or the seeds would die. Therefore, in the case of very high‐value products such as pharmaceuticals, where only relatively small quantities are required to satisfy medical requirements, transformed cell cultures may be a viable and more easily contained alternative production system to transgenic plants. University Server, www.gophisb.biotech.vt.edu/news/1995/news95.dec.html#dec9501). This has stimulated efforts to engineer viral resistance into transgenic crops. The continued use of the same marker can lead to co‐suppression and the loss of expression of the transgene itself, and also of genes with related sequences. Metabolix is now involved in a joint venture with the US Department of Energy worth $14.8 million with the aim of producing PHAs in transgenic plants over the next 5 years. Early attempts to express therapeutic peptides in seeds were hampered by a lack of understanding of the basic mechanisms of the synthesis, targeting, processing and storage of proteins in this organ. It is therefore surprising that this method of gene insertion has undergone relatively little subsequent refinement. Probably the best‐known example of this is spinach, where only 2% of the iron is actually bioavailable due to the presence of oxalates—sadly, a real‐life Popeye would not garner much strength from canned spinach! Recent studies have found that, while it did delay the acquisition of Bt resistance by the European corn borer, a seed mixture strategy was less effective than the refugia method (Davis and Onstad, 2000). In the EU and USA, as much as 25–30% of the starch production is used for industrial purposes with the remainder being used in foods and beverages. The use of plant biotechnology for the production of very high‐value compounds such as pharmaceuticals was one of the earliest goals of researchers in the field. Another potentially promising development is the FLP‐recombinase system of yeast (USDA Server, http://www.nal.usda.gov/pgdic/Probe/v4n3_4/theflp.html). ROOTSTOCKS: TRAINING METHODS AND FRUITING PERFORMANCES, 355_20 RESEARCH ON VARIABILITIES IN SOME IMPORTANT CHARACTERS OF GALANTHUS ELWESII HOOK. Expression of the transgene is restricted to the pollen‐nourishing tapetal cells of the anther and prevents the formation of mature pollen grains: this renders the male plants sterile (Mariani et al., 1990). Haploid gamete cells from anther or ovary can be diploidized after colchicine treatment, and then regenerated to yield doubled haploid plants. While various fungicides and nematicides are available to help farmers control these pathogens, there are no equivalent virus‐control agents, so the combating of viral diseases normally relies on the endogenous resistance of the plant. A common metal chelator in food plants is phytic acid, which can also sequester phosphate. Plant breeding ) [ CC0 public Domain ], via Wikimedia Commons contain two principal polysaccharides, amylose amylopectin! 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